Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Lottery Ticket by Anton Chekhov - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1165 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2018/12/19 Category Literature Essay Type Book review Level High school Topics: Fiction Essay Short Story Essay Did you like this example? The Lottery Ticket is a classic short story written by Antony Chekhov. He is a good storyteller who has managed to use some literary elements in this story. Chekhovs the lottery ticket is a story about a man and his wife who thought they had won a lottery. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Lottery Ticket by Anton Chekhov" essay for you Create order The stories walk the reader through a series of fantasy regarding this familys imagination of what they would do with the money in case they won a lottery (Chekhov, 2004). This story has two characters; Ivan Dmitritch and his wife whom they live together. It is built progressively from the beginning to the end, giving the reader an image of the imaginations of these two characters. Chekhov talks about what Dmitritch and his wife would do with the money if they happen to win the lottery. However, this paper is focused on analyzing the literary elements employed by Chekhov in this story starting from the plot, point of view, characters as well as the setting. Since from the beginning, the story has built a plot of what is happening until the end. Plot is one of the literary element used by Chekhov in this story. In this plot, Ivan Dmitritch is a middle-class person who lives with his family (Chekhov, 2004). When the story begins, he is contented as he sits on a sofa reading a paper while his wife is cleaning the dishes. She asked her husband to check for the lottery number, and he asks what the number is where she responds that it is 9499 26. Ivan indeed found that the first number is 9499 and dropped the paper which fell on his knees (Kopaniasz, 2014). He and his wife both started daydreaming about winning the seventy-five thousand and what they would do with the money. In their next few minutes, they started dreaming about buying a new house and traveling. They both began making plans on how to spend the money (Kopaniasz, 2014). They get so excited about winning the money while smiling and fantasizing on what they will do with the money . As the story unfolds, Ivan started imagining of his wife traveling without him and thought of her becoming stingy with the money. He hates the idea of her owning such amount of money. On the other hand, the wife starts thinking that her husband will be after the money. Since it is her money, she begins hating him for desiring her money (Chekhov, 2004). Chekhov used the plot to make the story interesting to the reader by the image of how a typical middle-class man and his wife had already spent the money even before they got it. Eventually, the husbands look to confirm if it is indeed true that they had won the money. Unfortunately, the number on the next page is 46 instead of 26. When they find out that they did not win, they both came back to earth from their dream, and immediately hatred and hope both disappeared at once. The plot has all the literary features of a plot. There is exposition by introducing the family and mentioning of the lottery ticket (Coulter Smith, 2009). The rising action begins when Ivan finds out the number 9499 given by his wife. As the story progresses, there is a climax when Ivan found out that the number does not match the winning number hence they did not win. The falling action of this story is when Ivan dreaded to live the life he lives while blaming the devil and questioning the audacity (Kopaniasz , 2014). In this plot, the writer is able to capture the attention of the reader by providing an exciting scenario of winning a lottery and how people think once they expect to get a huge amount of money. Another literary element used by Chekhov on The Lottery Ticket is the point of view. Chekhov uses this literary element to keep the reader interested in the story by building a picture of him telling the story on the mind of the reader (Kopaniasz, 2014). He uses the third person point of view which helps the reader to see the story unfolds from another view. The third person point of view is evident in this story from the beginning to the last part of the story. However, he managed to employ the first person point of view in direct quotations of the characters conversation on the dialogues. For instance, the third person point of view is seen when Chekhov says that Looking at his wife, Ivan Dmitritch gave a broad, senseless smile (Chekhov, 2004, 3). The point of view has managed to put the reader in a position to feel the connection with the story but not a too close one. The reader feels sorry for the family of Ivan Dmitritch for not winning the lottery and getting to stay their usual life despite their dream. The use of characters is another literary element used by Chekhov in the lottery ticket. This story has two main characters who include Ivan Dmitritch and his wife. In his element of characterization, Chekhov does not directly reveal about Ivan rather than he is poor and middle-aged (Vigil, 2017). However, his character gets clearly revealed through his through his speech and consciousness in the story. Progressively, his hatred, greed, and cynicism are exposed through his actions, feelings and the choice of words he uses (Kopaniasz, 2014). His wife Masha is not given a definitive although her innocence is shown through Ivans harsh words. The setting of this story is in the house of Ivan and his wife, Masha. They are in the dining room since we are told that Ivan sat down on the sofa after supper and began reading the newspaper (Chekhov, 2004, 1). While on the other hand, his wife was clearing the table after they had their supper (Kopaniasz, 2014). The reader views the setting as a right way of picturing that the story being told looks more realistic through the use of a familiar setting that everyone can relate to the story. The lottery ticket is a story of a middle-class family of Ivan and his wife, Masha. They are lottery players, and on one day after supper, they thought they had won the lottery. The story progresses, and the readers view how Chekhov builds this family. They start dreaming of their win and how to spend the money, but in the climax, they, unfortunately, did not win. Chekhov has managed to employ different literary elements in this story to make it more interesting to the reader. Ranging from the plot to the use of characters, the point of view and setting, the story unfolds interestingly. References Chekhov, A. (2004). The lottery ticket. The Online English Library. Coulter, C. A., Smith, M. L. (2009). The construction zone: Literary elements in narrative research. Educational Researcher, 38(8), 577-590. Kopaniasz, J. (2014). The Lottery Ticket By: Anton Chekhov. Prezi.com. Retrieved 25 November 2017, from https://prezi.com/fqptom2znefc/the-lottery-ticket-by-anton-chekhov/ Vigil, J. (2017). Literary Elements: Definition, Types Examples Video Lesson Transcript | Study.com. Study.com. Retrieved 25 November 2017, from https://study.com/academy/lesson/literary-elements-definition-types-examples.html

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Naturalistic Observation Report Essays - 1698 Words

Naturalistic observation is a way of observing applicants in their own natural environment without the contestants realizing the observers are present. My observation took me to different places and settings to complete my assignment where I observed the subjects’ reactions and further relate it with concepts of psychology. This assignment is going to look into the observation at different settings by watching people as they go about their normal activities in their own habitats, and will briefly describe the concepts of superego, egocentrism, operant conditioning, pretend play, and lack of conservation. These concepts are common between the ages 4-6 years of age. The paper will also analyze the interactions using a reflective approach on†¦show more content†¦49) and tries to make the ego behave morally, rather than realistically. The superego safeguards society by housing our morals and values. Society significantly influences the growth of our superego, but it is fi nally our decision how we choose to define our moralities. In this observation Jean Piaget’s concept of egocentrism describes how the children enter the preoperational stage of cognitive development where the young kids have difficulty understanding other points of view. Young children often choose the view that corresponded to their own position that is, â€Å"to view the world solely from one’s own perspective† (Sigelman Rider, 2012, p. 230) that other people see, hear and feel exactly the same as the child does. This can be clearly understood from my observation exercise, which was carried out on the park’s playground on a weekend morning and lasted approximately 45 minutes. The subject of the observation was a boy and a girl around 4 – 6 years of age playing next to each other making a sand castle. I carried out my observation from a relatively close distance, as they were playing next to me. While they finished making the sand castle, the boy by mistake dropped a bucket full of sand on top of the newl y built castle, seeing this the girl started crying and said to the boy she would not play with him ever again. This clearly states that the girl was notShow MoreRelatedNaturalistic Approach in Research777 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Naturalistic Approach Introduction Naturalistic qualitative enquiry expresses one’s view as to the nature of â€Å"reality†. It is the view that the real world is a dynamic system where in all parts are so interrelated that one part inevitably influences the other parts. To understand the real world, the parts cannot be seperated bit by bit, but the parts must be examined in the conext of the world. It is essentially a phenomenological view as differentiated from a logical-positivistic view of theRead MoreEssay on The Role of Methodology in Developmental Research1467 Words   |  6 Pages The most common methods are observations, in particular, naturalistic observation, interviews, correlation study, case study/single case design, longitudinal study. Cross cross-cultural studies are often incorporated, which offers a critical analysis and a ethnocentric view. All methodology must be ethically approved of, and follow the BPS guidelines, there is often ethical issues in developmental research. Naturalistic observation is an opportunity for researchersRead MoreQualitative Research Essay1628 Words   |  7 Pagesquestions, use of measurement and observation, and the test of theories). (Creswell, 2003) †¢ Qualitative research is used to gain insight into peoples attitudes, behaviours, value systems, concerns, motivations, aspirations, culture or lifestyles. †¢ Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. †¢ Qualitative research is often associated with naturalistic inquiry. †¢ Naturalistic methods of inquiry attempt to dealRead MoreThe Scientific Method Of Scientific Methods1387 Words   |  6 Pagesmethod a theory is formed by everyday observations. It predicts behaviors or possible outcomes. Next a hypothesis must be formed. A hypothesis is â€Å"a testable prediction often implied by a theory† (Myers, 2010). A hypothesis allows scientists to then research their question and support their theories with plausible data and concrete findings. The research methods that help formulate scientists’ data and results are case studies, surveys, naturalistic observations, experiments and correlations. CaseRead MoreEssay on Child Development Observation1013 Words   |  5 PagesIn this assignment I am going to describe a child observation that I have done in a nursery for twenty minutes in a play setting. I will explain the strengths and weaknesses of naturalistic observation through the key developmental milestones based in Mary Sheridan (2005) check-list and provide a theoretical explanation to support the naturalistic observation. First of all I would like to explain why the child observation is important for social workers. It is important because it focus on theRead MoreEssay Scientific Inquiry 1286 Words   |  6 Pagesscientific attitude we deploy the scientific method to create a theory. It begins with making observations. From these observations we form a theory, later refining the theory as new observations shed light on the subject matter. This scientific theory creates a hypothesis, the testable prediction. Psychologists use various methods of research such as the case study, the survey, naturalistic observation, correlation, and experimentation. In case studies, a psychologist will study one individualRead MoreEmpirical And Objective Methods Of Investigation857 Words   |  4 Pagesqualitative (in a descriptive form e.g. verbal reports about how participants feel). In experimental investigations, the independent variable (IV) and dependant variable (DV) are investigated by changing the IV and observing the effects it might have on the DV. These experimental methods are usually carried out in the laboratory however, experiments can also be conducted outside the laboratory, such as field experiments and quasi experiments, whether naturalistic or controlled, methods are used by psychologistsRead MoreWhy Crying Has Its Perks903 Words   |  4 Pagesfollow crying in order to determine whether crying is cathartic. In the past, research has resulted in conflicting results based upon the co nstraints of the experiment itself. Results differed from both retrospective self-report studies and laboratory studies. Retrospective self-report studies found a decrease in mood, while the self-reporting studies found that mood increases. A University of Tilburg study lead by Asmir GraÄ anin set out to provide an answer. In the article â€Å"Crying Has its Perks† fromRead MoreQualitative Research1369 Words   |  6 PagesQualitative research is a generic term for investigative methodologies described as ethnographic, naturalistic, anthropological, field, or participant observer research. It emphasizes the importance of looking at variables in the natural setting in which they are found. Interaction between variables is important. Detailed data is gathered through open ended questions. The interviewer is an integral part of the investigation (Jacob 1988). This differs from quantitative research which attemptsRead MoreWhat I Have Learned About Research1270 Words   |  6 Pagesprocess that psychologist and scientist develop that includes many different approaches and that is carefully peer reviewed and evaluated. There is what is called the Scientific Approach where scientist have an idea or theory and based on their observation will either support the theory or the theory can be falsified by their peers. Data also goes through a review period before it is published in a scientific journal by scientist who have the knowledge and expertise to evaluate it. I also learned

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Environment and renewable energy Free Essays

Environment The word environment means ‘surroundings ‘ . It includes everything that we depend on during the class of our life such as air, H2O, dirt, works, animate beings etc. The most serious environmental job of today is the pollution of air, H2O and dirt, lives of endangered species of workss and animate beings, planetary heating, interrupting of ozone bed, acid rains and devastation of tropical rain woods. We will write a custom essay sample on Environment and renewable energy or any similar topic only for you Order Now Renewable Energy A really utile method to minimise the environmental pollution is the usage of renewable energy systems alternatively of the conventional resources. Renewable energy by its definition agencies, â€Å"Renewable energy is derived from natural procedures that are replenished invariably. In its assorted signifiers, it derives straight from the Sun, or from heat generated deep within the Earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, air current, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermic resources, and bio fuels and H derived from renewable resources.† In kernel, a phenomenon uses non-pollutant beginning as fuel alternatively of conventional fuel like oil and coal. Solar Energy The most popular and simple manner of alternate energy is solar energy i.e. the electricity produced by Sun ‘s radiation. There are two methods of accomplishing the above-named end, Photovoltaic Cells A photovoltaic cell alterations sunlight straight into electricity. These cells usually produces 1 – 2 Watts of electricity which is non sufficient plenty to run contraptions, hence a figure of such cells are bound together to organize big faculties and even these faculties can be connected to organize arrays to bring forth needed power end product. PV systems can easy be used at any distant site like RF Stationss. They are besides used to power tickers, reckoners, route marks and street lamps. Electricity produced by these faculties green goodss Direct Current ( DC ) whereas the normal place contraptions that we use are Alternate Current ( AC ) appliances hence an inverter is required to change over the DC into AC. Solar Power Plants They indirectly generate electricity when the heat from solar thermic aggregators is used to heat a fluid that produces steam to travel the turbine that is connected to ordinary generators. Restrictions The end product of solar energy systems depend on sum of solar radiation produced by the Sun at that peculiar site and at that peculiar clip of the twelvemonth. Furthermore, the PV faculties are merely 18 % efficient nevertheless ; attempts are being made to increase their efficiency to a singular degree. Wind Mills The windmill systems includes wind turbine with a conventional generator. The air current fluxing green goodss mechanical energy in a turbine that is converted into electricity from a conventional generator coupled to the turbine. These systems works basically the same as coevals from fossil fuels except that alternatively mechanical energy produced by utilizing steam it is produced from the burning of fossil fuels, the mechanical motion is produced by the air current flow. Modern air current turbines range from 600 kilowatts to 5 MW of power end product, although turbines with rated end product of 1.5-3 MW have become really common for commercial usage. Restrictions The power end product of a turbine is a map of the regular hexahedron of the air current velocity, so as air current velocity additions, power end product additions. Areas where air currents are stronger and more changeless, such as offshore and high height sites are preferable locations for air current farms. Since air current velocity is non changeless, the energy production besides varies. Nuclear Power Plants Nuclear power workss usually use atomic fission reaction to bring forth energy. In fission the karyon of big, atoms such as uranium 235 or Pu 239, is split into two or more smaller karyon bring forthing big sum of kinetic energy along with free neutrons and gamma radiation. The free neutrons are used to bring forth more such fission reactions. A chilling system removes heat from reactor nucleus and transports it to the country where thermic energy is used to heat unstable bring forthing steam to revolve the turbine coupled with conventional generators. Issues It is fact that the atomic waste is risky to the environment but these hazards can be eliminated by utilizing improved method to manage the waste merchandises. Furthermore, atomic reactors produce virtually no air pollution and the energy green goods is much higher than the fossil-fuel generators. In add-on, atomic power produces far less godforsaken stuff than fossil-fuel based power workss. Coal combustion workss are peculiarly noted for bring forthing big sums of toxic and mildly radioactive ash due to concentrating of course happening metals and radioactive stuff from the coal. Restrictions The atomic power workss have high initial investing and the care cost is besides really high. Decision The renewable energy system uses fuel that has unlimited militias, free of cost and generalized being like sunbeams for solar systems and air for air current factory systems, even U for atomic power workss are really abundant in nature. It is about every bit common as Sn or Ge in Earth ‘s crust, and is approximately 35 times more common than Ag. In add-on, more significantly they are none or far less pollutant than the conventional beginnings. However, these renewable energy systems produce no air or H2O pollution but do hold some indirect impacts on the environment. For illustration, fabricating the photovoltaic cells used to change over sunshine into electricity consumes silicon and produces some waste merchandises. In add-on, big solar thermal farms and windmill can besides harm desert ecosystems if non decently managed. Man in the name of engineering and scientific promotion does these amendss to the Mother Earth like the arms that we make to safe lives are really killing ourselves by one manner or the other. It is we who in the unsighted pursuit of technological promotion had willing or unwillingly destroyed the full ecological system and it is our premier responsibility now to salvage it as our endurance depends on its being How to cite Environment and renewable energy, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Saturday Night at the Birthday Party free essay sample

Hannah invited 13 children to Jason’s birthday costume party at her home in Kissimmee. The children’s ages ranged from three to thirteen years old. Mostly everyone came to her home dressed in colorful costumes. Some were friendly, scary or funny,others were homemade or store bought. A young married couple arrived around 4:30 pm with their three-year-old son, Matthew, who is the subject of this paper.. His father John was dressed as a tattered bum and his wife Sarah was dressed as a friendly pretty witch. Little Matthew who is usually a white, blond hair male was dressed in a black cat outfit complete with the painted face to resemble a cat. He also wore the red nose, red cheeks and whiskers. He is tall and thin for his age. According to John and Sarah, Matthew’s parents, their son is a curious little boy by nature. Emotional Deveopment and Stranger Anxiety Matthew demonstrated a wide range of basic emotions as Kail and Cavanaugh predicted. Most scientists agree that complex emotions don’t surface until 18 to 24 months of age (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2006, pa. 186). † Complex emotions require the additional step of reflecting on one’s own behavior and how one feels about it. Matthew moved his big blue eyes as he scanned the busy room filled with wild assortments of costumes that floated around him. Matthew did not speak much but his facial expressions of wonderment seemed to say what his mouth did not. Sometimes, his face would light up with excitement and other times he seemed to be paralyzed by fear. He reacted to the hip-hop music by bouncing up and down and clapping his hands. Matthew demonstrated â€Å"stranger wariness; by the end of the first year the child becomes wary in the presence of an unfamiliar adult (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2006, pa. 188). † He ran to his mother and father and hid his face in his mother’s lap when someone approached him to try to engage him in a dance. Until then he appeared to have forgotten about his parents. His ability to explore and his quick return to his parents when frightened showed that he had a secure attachment to his mother’s presence (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2006, pa. 177). Temperament I myself was dressed as Raggedy Annie. Matthew did not seem to be impressed with or afraid of my costume. He showed much interest in some of the other more outrageous costumes i. e. : a Martian with antennas, and a â€Å"Bug’s Life† look alike. Matthew just simply sat and stared at other costumes. He also smiled and laughs at others. When his parents allowed him to move about freely, Matthew hesitated and clung to his parents. That did not last for very long. As the night wore on, Matthew adjusted to his freedom and ventured away from the safety of his parents. This behavior can be easily related to temperment. Temperament is a consistent style or pattern in a child’s behavior (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2006, pa. 93). † When Matthew was first introduced to his new environment, he seemed slow to the adjustment. He seemed to be processing new information rather than just reacting to it. His activity level was very low at first. As time passed, he became more and more comfortable in his new surroundings and began to respond to it more favorably. This is evidence of â€Å"Slow-To-Warm-Up† temperament in which the child’s behavior is initially inhibited and then becomes more like the Easy or Difficult temperament types. He did not pay much attention to the people who were not dressed in costumes. He did not play or laugh with them at all. Rather, he appeared to be more interested in the array of colorful costumes and the behavior that they were engaged in, either laughing and/or dancing. Psychosocial Development Erikson predicted that by age 2 children strive for autonomy, â€Å"independence from others and control over their own behavior (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2006, pa. 179). † Around 6:00 pm it was time to eat. John and Sarah tried to get Matthew to sit with them so that they could eat together. Matthew did not want to sit. He began to cry and pull away when his dad tried to lift him up. When they got Matthew to the table, Matthew did not want to eat. His parents tried everything. He was too excited about all that was going on around him. Clearly Matthew wanted to regulate what was and was not going to happen by exerting his independence so profoundly. He had demostrated his autonomy by resisting, crying, and pulling away. He is probably still going through his terrible two years. He has a strong will power, but it is short lived. His reaction to some of the other more scary costumes and his need to be in the safety of his parents at that time showed some doubt as to his ability to deal with the unexpected. Once again, Matthew became unsure of himself. Erikson would classify this type of behavior as â€Å"AUTONOMY vs SHAME DOUBT†. Cognitive Development Some of the other guests sensing what was going on with Matthew, attempted to help John and Sarah. A happy smiling clown went over and played with Matthew. The clown got him to eat some of his hamburger and french fries. A white rabbit with a big fuzzy tail pretending to nibble on an orange carrot went over to play with him and Matthew laughed and played joyfully. A silly puppet went over and danced in front of Matthew. The puppet also got Matthew to eat a little more of his french fries and drink some of his apple juice. When the colorful clown and the silly puppet interacted with Matthew he reached out to them, smiled and laughed with them. They got him to eat. Then a hungry pig came over to Matthew and tried to play with him. Matthew cried and pulled away. A ghost and a Freddy Kruger look alike went to say hello to Matthew. Matthew cried, swatted his hands at them to leave, twisted away from them, and started yelling no-no. Matthew’s fear of Freddy reveals the quality of â€Å"Appearance as reality† which is characteristic of the Preoperational stage of cognitive development (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2006, pa. 138). During the preoperational stage, magical thinking is the rule and children have great difficulty distinguishing between fantasy and reality. In Matthew’s mind he believed the costumes were real. He believed the scary characters wanted to harm him (twisting away, swatting hands, crying out no no). His behavior was guided by a mistaken belief (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2004, pa. 123). I asked Matthew about the clown and the rabbit. Matthew said, â€Å"FUNNY, I WANT GO DOWN AND PLAY WITH THEM†. Matthew was also displaying â€Å"CONFUSION BETWEEN APPEARANCE AND REALITY†. Matthew is probably in the pre-operational stage of development. Although Matthew’s parents as well as he himself were dressed in costumes he still could not understand that these where simply people dressed up as he and his parent’s were. Theory of Mind This behavior is typical for a pre-operational thinker. Piaget stated that children typically believe others see the world literally and figuratively exactly as they do. (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2004, pa. 134). Matthew may have seen these types of characters in other settings, like television. Based on the animated characters portrayals, and the way others reacted toward them, his memory has probably developed a schema toward those characters (fear-bad or friendly-nice). After getting permission from his parents I spoke with Matthew. I asked him why he cried when the pig and ghost tried to play with him? Matthew said because they are bad. Then I asked if the pig and the ghost had been mean to him. His reply was â€Å"SCARRY†. This statement has lead me to believe that Matthew was exercising a â€Å"theory of mind† by attributing motivations to the other characters (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2006, pa. 123). (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2006, pa. 186) Conclusion: In Matthew’s preoperational thinking, an object’s appearance tells what the object is really like. Matthew is learning how to assert his wishes and to categorize his likes and dislikes. He has a theory of mind which includes attributes of good vs. evil. He showed no emotion towards the people who were not in costumes even though they were strangers to him. He paid much more attention to the people who were in costumes and perceived them to be what they were imitating. Matthew distinguished between the clown, puppet, rabbit, pig, ghost and the â€Å"Freddy Kruger† look alike. He had and idea of what was safe and what was not safe, no matter how friendly they were to him. He demonstrated a wide range of emotion and secure attachment to his parents.

Thursday, April 2, 2020

Automotive Airbag History and Invention

Automotive Airbag History and Invention Like seatbelts, airbags are a type of  automobile safety restraint system designed to mitigate injury in the event of an accident. These gas-inflated cushions, built into the steering wheel, dashboard, door, roof, and/or seat of your car, use a crash sensor to trigger a rapid expansion of nitrogen gas contained inside a cushion that pops out on impact to put a protective barrier between passengers and hard surfaces. Types of Airbags The two main types of airbags are designed for front impact and side impact. Advanced frontal airbag systems automatically determine if and with what level of power the driver-side frontal airbag and the passenger-side frontal airbag will inflate. The appropriate level of power is based on the readings of sensor inputs that can typically detect occupant size, seat position, seat belt use of the occupant, and severity of the crash. Side-impact airbags (SABs) are inflatable devices designed to help protect the head and/or chest in the event of a serious crash involving impact with the side of a vehicle. There are three main types of SABs: chest (or torso) SABs, head SABs, and head/chest combination (or combo) SABs. The History of the Airbag At the dawn of the airbag industry, Allen Breed held the  patent (U.S. #5,071,161) to the only crash-sensing technology available at the time. Breed had invented a sensor and safety system in 1968. It was the worlds first electromechanical automotive airbag system. However, rudimentary patents for airbag predecessors date back to the 1950s. Patent applications were submitted by German Walter Linderer and American John Hetrick as early as 1951. Linderers airbag (German patent #896312) was based on a compressed air system, either released by bumper contact or by the driver. Hetrick received a patent in 1953 (U.S. #2,649,311) for what he called a safety cushion assembly for automotive vehicles, also based on compressed air. Later research during the 1960s proved that compressed air was not capable of inflating the airbags quickly enough to be effective. In 1964, Japanese automobile engineer Yasuzaburou Kobori  was developing an airbag safety net system that employed an explosive device to trigger airbag inflation, for which he was awarded patents in 14 countries. Sadly, Kobori  died in 1975 before seeing his ideas put into practical or widespread use. Airbags Are Introduced Commercially In 1971, the Ford Motor Company built an experimental airbag fleet. General Motors installed airbags in a fleet of 1973 Chevrolet Impalas- for government use only. The 1973 Oldsmobile Toronado was the first car with a passenger airbag sold to the public. General Motors later offered an option of driver-side airbags in full-sized Oldsmobiles and Buicks in 1975 and 1976, respectively. Cadillacs became available with driver and passenger airbags options during those years as well. General Motors, which had marketed its airbags as the Air Cushion Restraint System, discontinued the ACRS option for the 1977  model year, citing a lack of consumer interest. Ford and GM subsequently spent years  lobbying  against airbag requirements, arguing that the devices were simply not viable. Eventually, however, the automobile giants realized that the airbag was here to stay. Ford began offering them again as an option on their 1984 Tempo. While Chrysler made a driver-side airbag standard for its 1988–1989 models, it wasn’t until the early 1990s that airbags found their way into the majority of American cars. In 1994, TRW began production of the first gas-inflated airbag. Airbags have been mandatory in all new cars since 1998.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Free Essays on Pharmacodynamics Of Nicotine And Its Use In Smoking Cessation

Running Head: Pharmacodynamics of Nicotine Pharmacodynamics of Nicotine and It’s Use in Smoking Cessation Pharmacodynamics of the Nicotine Patch and It’s Use in Smoking Cessations Quitting smoking is one of the hardest habits for people to quit. Thankfully today there are many helpful aids for those who are trying to quit smoking one of which is the Nicotine Patch. NRT’s or nicotine replacement therapy’s have become increasingly popular in the last decade, partly because of increased health promotion programs aimed at informing the public on the harmful effects of smoking and some possible ways to quit. Another large reason NRT’s have become increasingly popular is their availability as an OTC (Over the Counter) drug, instead of having to see a doctor for a prescription. Nevertheless before one attempts to quit smoking they should be aware of the pharmacodynamics of a nicotine addiction (the effects of the nicotine of the body), how the patch works to aid in smoking cessation, possible side effects of the patch and reasons why the patch should not be used by some individuals. Nicotine is one of the most highly addictive substances sold legally. Its Chemical composition is very close to that of heroin, and smoking is related to many serious health problems. Nicotine is so addicting because it increases the levels of certain chemicals such as dopamine ( ) and norepinepherine in the brain (BC Health Guide). Once smoke is inhaled into the lungs the nicotine almost immediately moves across the lung tissues into the bloodstream. Although nicotine is addictive, the harmful effects from smoking are caused by the tars, carbon monoxide and many other toxic chemicals in the tobacco. Quitting is so hard to do because the body becomes dependant on the nicotine. Once the individual refrains from smoking, the level of the dopamine and norepinepherine in the brain drop and the bodies react by having a nicotine ... Free Essays on Pharmacodynamics Of Nicotine And It's Use In Smoking Cessation Free Essays on Pharmacodynamics Of Nicotine And It's Use In Smoking Cessation Running Head: Pharmacodynamics of Nicotine Pharmacodynamics of Nicotine and It’s Use in Smoking Cessation Pharmacodynamics of the Nicotine Patch and It’s Use in Smoking Cessations Quitting smoking is one of the hardest habits for people to quit. Thankfully today there are many helpful aids for those who are trying to quit smoking one of which is the Nicotine Patch. NRT’s or nicotine replacement therapy’s have become increasingly popular in the last decade, partly because of increased health promotion programs aimed at informing the public on the harmful effects of smoking and some possible ways to quit. Another large reason NRT’s have become increasingly popular is their availability as an OTC (Over the Counter) drug, instead of having to see a doctor for a prescription. Nevertheless before one attempts to quit smoking they should be aware of the pharmacodynamics of a nicotine addiction (the effects of the nicotine of the body), how the patch works to aid in smoking cessation, possible side effects of the patch and reasons why the patch should not be used by some individuals. Nicotine is one of the most highly addictive substances sold legally. Its Chemical composition is very close to that of heroin, and smoking is related to many serious health problems. Nicotine is so addicting because it increases the levels of certain chemicals such as dopamine ( ) and norepinepherine in the brain (BC Health Guide). Once smoke is inhaled into the lungs the nicotine almost immediately moves across the lung tissues into the bloodstream. Although nicotine is addictive, the harmful effects from smoking are caused by the tars, carbon monoxide and many other toxic chemicals in the tobacco. Quitting is so hard to do because the body becomes dependant on the nicotine. Once the individual refrains from smoking, the level of the dopamine and norepinepherine in the brain drop and the bodies react by having a nicotine ...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Health Benefits of Belly Dancing Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Health Benefits of Belly Dancing - Article Example Bossonis, â€Å"belly dancing accompanied by music is a very good ingredient at de-stressing/ stress reduction. Moreover, dancing to the music one is passionate about† (2004). In addition, the joy of it is when an individual shares how it helps reduce stress to friends. Due to how many women are busy nowadays, it is important that to treat stress reduction as a necessity other than a luxury. This is because belly dancing helps eliminate the destructive stress and thus it acts as a form of self-care. Once an individual masters the art of belly dancing, the greatest type of mental and emotional health is that it increases one’s self-esteem. A person is able to gain more self-confidence and above all one becomes more agile. On the other hand, the art of belly dancing utilizes movements that generally women are blessed with naturally. More so, as one increases the mastery of all movements of belly dancing, the movements start flowing naturally and they lead to one developin g a more positive attitude towards oneself. Akademi, â€Å"Happiness and joy develop as one attains more and more confidence. The body becomes stronger. It increases mental recovery and emotional breakdown. Belly dancing makes one feel good about their selves which leads to self-acceptance, joy, and happiness†. The positive side effects of belly dancing bring joy in one’s life enough to tackle life stresses and thus an improved mental and emotional health. Every human being spinal column contains numerous bones and ligaments than any other body part. It has thirty-three vertebrae stacked one on top of each other. Every movement of the torso is dependent on the flexibility and function of the spinal cord. Coluccia et al. state that â€Å"during belly dancing, muscles that are attached to the ligaments and vertebrae generate movement to the trunk and pelvic areas which stimulates muscle toning and flexibility†. In addition, the toned muscles help improve the body posture preventing back pain which is mostly the cause of bending.